PHYS 1P96: Physics for Scientists and Engineers II Brock University, Winter 2025 
Table of contents 
Course overview ^PHYS 1P96 provides a first universitylevel introduction to many important and exciting concepts in physics, including fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. By successfully finishing this course, you will gain fundamental insight into how our universe works, and will be prepared for more advanced studies in physics and all other areas of science. As this course is a continuation of PHYS 1P95: Physics for Scientists and Engineers I, students must take PHYS 1P95 before they can register in PHYS 1P96, unless they obtain special permission from the instructor. Please note that PHYS 1P96 contains considerably more material than PHYS 1P95, and will require you to understand about twice as many concepts in the same amount of time. The official textbook for this course is OpenStax University Physics, which has 3 volumes:
All 3 volumes are available for free online at OpenStax. This textbook contains all of the material in the course, aside from occasional bonus material that will be introduced in lectures. Please see the course outline below for information regarding which parts of the textbook will be covered in the course. IMPORTANT: Announcements from the professor, containing crucial information and ongoing updates about the course, will be posted throughout the term on Microsoft Teams. To make sure you get notified of these announcements, please go to the course Teams site, click on the three dots to the right of "Announcements", then go to "Channel notifications" and choose the option "All activity", as shown in this screenshot: Please also bookmark the course Teams site in your browser, install Teams on your phone, and enable notifications on the phone app! It is your responsibility to follow the announcements and read all of them thoroughly on a regular basis. No accommodations will be made for students who fail to satisfy the course requirements due to not reading the professor's announcements! 
Course syllabus ^The course website also doubles as the course syllabus. If you need the syllabus in PDF format, simply click here to print it and choose "Save to PDF". 
About the professor ^The professor for this course is Dr. Barak Shoshany (ħe/ħim). I did my BSc in mathematics and physics at Tel Aviv University in Israel and my MSc and PhD at Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. I then taught at the University of Toronto for a short time. I joined Brock University as Assistant Professor in September 2020, and I also regularly teach scientific computing at McMaster University. I am a theoretical, mathematical, and computational physicist. My research focuses on the nature of time and causality in general relativity and quantum mechanics, as well as symbolic and highperformance scientific computing. I'm always happy to talk about my research, and theoretical physics in general, so please feel free to ask me about it, both in and out of class! I also love teaching. I developed 10 fullterm undergraduate and graduate courses from scratch since 2020, including 5 physics courses, 3 astronomy courses, 1 scientific computing course, and 1 mathematics course. My devotion to teaching won me the Brock University Faculty of Mathematics & Science Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2023. When I'm not teaching or doing research, I love composing music, playing video games, board games, and tabletop roleplaying games, and reading or watching science fiction and fantasy. Please see my personal website for details on my research, teaching, talks, media interviews, music compositions, and more. My office is located in room E219 in the Mackenzie Chown Complex (MC). I do not have fixed office hours. You are welcome to drop by my office unannounced whenever you want, but I'm not there too often. If you would like to meet, please email me at bshoshany@brocku.ca, and I would be happy to schedule a meeting, either online or in my office. 
Schedule and lectures ^The course will take place during the Winter (D3) 2025 term, from January 6 to April 4, 2025. The deadline for withdrawal without academic penalty is March 6. There will be two 2hour lectures every week:
The following lectures will be canceled:
In total, we will have 24 lectures and 48 lecture hours. The lectures will take place in person in STH 217 (South Block room 217) For your convenience, here is the full list of lecture days, times, and locations:

Contacting the professor ^Students are invited to contact the professor via the following methods:
Personal vs. nonpersonal questionsThere are several reasons for asking you to post your question on Teams:
I promise to answer all questions posted on Teams as soon as I can  emailing me or messaging me directly won't get you an answer any faster! If you have a nonpersonal question that you don't want to ask in public on Teams, you can email me your question, but please let me know why you are asking it in private, otherwise I will just ask you to post it on Teams instead. Please note that if I believe my answer could be of use to other students, I may post your question and my answer on Teams (without mentioning your name), unless you explicitly ask me not to. Other important rulesIf you email me, please make sure to do so from your Brock email account, not from your personal account, since otherwise I have no way to verify your identity. I will not be able to share or discuss any personal details with you if you contact me from your nonBrock email. Please only message me once; do not send me the same message both by email and on Teams. This will not get me to respond any faster. I get notifications for both emails and Teams messages on my phone as soon as they are received, so if you do this I'll simply get two separate notifications for the same message, which will just annoy me and make me less likely to respond to your message quickly. IMPORTANT: In my experience, many of the questions asked by students throughout the term already have answers either on the course website or in Teams discussions and announcements. Therefore, before you ask a question, please check if perhaps it already has an answer on this website or on Teams  that way, you won't have to wait for a response. Lastly, please do not email the professor with any labrelated matters. Any inquiries regarding the labs must be sent directly to the Senior Lab Coordinator. 
Course outline ^The course material will consist of the following chapters and sections of the textbook, OpenStax University Physics, volumes 1, 2, and 3:
All chapters marked as "already covered in PHYS 1P95" are required as mandatory background material for PHYS 1P96, and all 1P96 quizzes and exams will assume that you know all of the 1P95 material. Please make sure to review this material if needed! 
Lecture slides ^The slides for the lectures correspond to textbook chapters, to keep things organized. They will be posted here once we finish each chapter. 
Weekly progress ^As the course progresses, this section will be updated to indicate what we learned each week, and in particular, what material will be covered in the weekly quizzes and final exam. If a textbook section is listed here, then the entire section will be covered in that week's quiz and in the final exam. This includes any parts of that section that may have been omitted or skimmed during the lectures due to lack of time. Students are expected to study any omitted parts on their own, and encouraged to ask questions on Teams or during the next lecture if anything is unclear. Conversely, any chapter or section not listed here will not be covered in the quizzes or final exam. 
Homework problem sets ^There will be a homework problem set every week, which will include problems related to the material learned that week. Each problem set will be posted on Teams after the last lecture of the week. The homework problem sets will not be graded, and will not contribute to your final grade directly, but solving them will be crucial for your success in the exams. The homework problem sets are not graded, and you do not need to submit them to anyone. The problem sets can be solved either alone or together with other classmates, and discussion of the problem sets with other students, whether on Teams, or in private, is strongly encouraged. Solutions will not be posted by the professor; instead, students are encouraged to post their own solutions on Teams and get feedback from the professor or from other students. At the end of each chapter of the textbook there are many practice questions, both conceptual and quantitative. Solving as many questions from the relevant textbook sections as possible will greatly improve your success in the quizzes and the final exam. The quiz may contain questions that are unrelated to the homework questions, and conversely, not all homework questions are necessarily related to questions that will be in the quiz. It's up to you to make sure you understand all the material we learned during the week, not just the material related to the homework questions. This will be important for the final exam. IMPORTANT: When solving quantitative questions, whether from the homework or elsewhere, it is important to always provide complete analytical derivations of any quantities you need to calculate. "Analytical" means all variables must remain undetermined, i.e. just letters, without putting any numbers into any of the variables. In the quizzes and final exam you will be required to provide analytical derivations without any specific numerical values given to you. All necessary steps of the derivation must be provided for a full mark. 
Labs ^All labrelated materials and information can be found on Brightspace. If you have any questions about the labs, please contact the Senior Lab Coordinator. Please do not contact the professor regarding any labrelated matters! 
Quizzes and exams ^Weekly quizzesThere will be an inperson quiz every week except the first week. The quiz will always take place during the first hour of the first lecture of the week, that is, on Wednesday at 19:0020:00. Once the quiz is done, we will proceed with learning new material during the second hour of the lecture. Each week's quiz will review the material of the previous week, meaning that quiz 1 will review the material learned in week 1, and so on. Furthermore, there will be no quiz covering the last week; that material will only be covered in the final exam. Each quiz will last exactly 1 hour. The quizzes will consist of freeform questions. You must show your work to get full marks on your answer. You may get partial marks if your final answer is incorrect but your derivation is mostly correct. Final examIn addition, this course will have an inperson final exam. It will be in the exact same format as the quizzes, but it will last 2 hours, and will cover the material of the entire course. The date and time for the final exam will be announced once the university scheduling team determines it. 
Missed exams ^If you miss a quiz or exam, please email the professor within 7 days. Your email should explain why you missed the exam and include any necessary proof, such as a doctor's note.
If you are late to a quiz or exam, you will not get any extra time, so please make sure to be at the exam room at least 15 minutes before the beginning of the exam! 
Allowed material and academic integrity ^During the quizzes and exams, you may use notes containing any material of your choice, printed or handwritten, up to 10 doublesided papers for each quiz and up to 100 doublesided papers for the final exam. You may also use a physical calculator, but not an app or a graphing calculator. Computers, phones, tablets, smart watches, and other digital devices cannot be used in the exams. Any students found in possession of a digital device of any kind (other than a calculator) during the exam will be considered as having used the device, and will be disciplined accordingly. You will not be given any formulas in the exam, so it is highly recommended to include in your notes any formulas that might be relevant. However, you do not need to include the numerical values of any constants in your material; if any numerical values are required to solve the question, they will be given in the exam. There will be no readymade formula sheets, since preparing a formula sheet on your own is a great way to summarize the material for yourself and organize it in your head! However, you are free to use formula sheets prepared by others if you want; the choice of material to bring to the exam is completely up to you, as long as it's limited to the amount indicated above. Since you can bring your own material, you do not need to memorize anything. The exam is not meant to test your memory. It will test your level of understanding of the physics concepts you learn in the course, and your ability to apply them correctly and efficiently to concrete problems. Students are expected to fully comply with Brock University's academic integrity policy. A variety of measures will be taken to detect cases of cheating in both online and inperson exams. If a student is found to have committed academic misconduct, disciplinary measures will be taken. Please see this page for more information about academic integrity. 
Grading scheme and requirements ^The total grade for the course will be calculated as follows:
As for all courses at Brock, the final grade (after taking into account all of the above) must be 50% or more in order to pass the course. 
Exam preparation ^The best way to prepare for the quizzes and the final exam is to:

Accommodations ^Brock University is committed to fostering an inclusive and supportive environment for all students and will adhere to the Human Rights principles that ensure respect for dignity, individualized accommodation, inclusion, and full participation. The University provides a wide range of resources to assist students, as follows:

Use of artificial intelligence ^The technology currently marketed as artificial intelligence (AI) is not actually "intelligent". Chatbots and virtual assistants such as ChatGPT, Copilot, Google Gemini, and Meta AI, as well as services such as Google's "AI overview", should not be used as study resources in this or any other course. These services are based on a type of machine learning model called a large language model (LLM). In simplified terms, an LLM model is trained an a specific dataset, usually extracted from the Internet, and can then be used to generate similar data. When you ask a chatbot a question, it doesn't actually "know" the answer in any meaningful way; it simply uses mathematical modeling to predict the most likely next word, and keeps doing that until it forms an answer. Nowhere in this process is the answer generated by the model being checked for factual accuracy. This leads to an effect called "hallucination", where LLMs commonly generate false or even misleading information, but present it as fact. This can sometimes be obvious, but it is more likely to be subtle, for example a key incorrect sentence hiding inside an otherwise correct answer. Another issue with LLMs is that they cannot do math. This is because they are trained to understand language, not math. If you ask an LLM any kind of question involving nontrivial math, it will almost certainly give you an incorrect answer. This makes LLMs a very unreliable resource for fields such as math, physics, and astronomy. Since LLMs often produce incorrect information, students are very strongly advised NOT to use any AI chatbots or services when studying for this course. Please use only reliable scientific sources such as Wikipedia or published textbooks and research articles written by humans. If you use LLMs, you are very likely to get incorrect information that will decrease your chances of succeeding in this course. 
Intellectual property notice ^Any and all course materials created by the instructor in this course, including but not limited to notes, slides, homework problems, homework solutions, exams, exam solutions, and photo, audio, and/or video recordings, are the intellectual property of the instructor. Any student who, without the instructor's express consent, publicly posts or sells the instructor's work, or takes a photo, audio, and/or video recording of the instructor's lectures, will be charged with misconduct under Brock University's Academic Integrity Policy and/or Code of Conduct, and may also face adverse legal consequences for infringement of intellectual property rights. 